VÚV TGM Česká zemědělská univerzita Ministerstvo vnitra České republiky

Návrh koncepce řešení krizové situace vyvolané výskytem sucha a nedostatkem vody na území ČR


Alley M.W. (1984) The Palmer Drought Severity Index: Limitations and Assumptions. Journal of climate and applied meteorology, 23, 1100–1109.

Bayarjargal, Y., Karnieli, A., Bayasgalan, M., Khudulmur, S., Ganush, C., Tucker, C.J. (2006) A comparative study of NOAA-AVHRR derived drought indices using change vector analysis. Remote Sens. Environ., 105, 9–22.

Bidwell V.J. (1973) A Methodology for Analysing Agricultural Drought. In: Schulz E.F., Koelzer V.A., Mahmood K. Floods and Droughts, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium in Hydrology, September 11–13, 1972, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. Water Resources Publication, Fort Collins, Colorado, s. 515–522.

Blinka, P. (2002) Metoda hodnocení sucha. In: Rožnovský, J., Litschmann, T. (ed.): XIV. Česko-slovenská bioklimatologická konference, Lednice na Moravě, 2.–4. září 2002, s. 32–44. ISBN 80-85813-99-8

Briffa K. R. (1994) Summer moisture variability across Europe, 1892–1991: An analysis based on the palmer drought severity index. International Journal of Climatology, 14, 475–506.

Brown, J.F., Wardlow, B.D., Tadesse, T., Hayes, M.J., Reed, B.C. (2008) The Vegetation Drought Response Index (VegDRI): A new integrated approach for monitoring drought stress in vegetation. GIScience and Remote Sensing, 45(1), 16–46.

Burke, E.J., Brown, S.J., Christidis, N. (2006). Modeling the recent evolution of global drought and projections for the twenty-first century with the Hadley Centre Climate Model. J. Hydrometeorol., 7, 1113–1125.

Byun, H.R., Wilhite, D.A. (1999) Objective quantification of drought severity and duration. J. Climate, 12, 2747–2756.

Carlson, T.N., Gillies, R.R., Perry, E.M. (1994) A method to make use of thermal infrared temperature and NDVI measurements to infer surface soil water content and fractional vegetation cover. Remote Sens. Environ., 9, 161–173.

De Martonne, E. (1926) Aréisme et indice artitide. Comptes Rendus de L’Acad. Sci., Paris 192, 1395–1398.

Desai, V. R., Mishra, A. K. (2006) Drought Forecasting Using Standardized Precipitation Index. Jalvagian Sameeksha, Indian National Commitee on Hydrology, 21, 89–105.

Dobrovolný, P (1998) Dálkový průzkum Země. Digitální zpracování obrazu. Masarykova univerzita v Brně, Brno, 210 s.

Dracup J. A., Lee K. S., Paulson Jr. E. G. (1980) On the statistical characteristics of drought events. Water Resources Research, 16(2), 289–296.

Drlička R. (2006) Sucha na Moravě a ve Slezsku. Diplomová práce. Geografický ústav, Masarykova univerzita, Přírodovědecká fakulta, Brno.

Dubrovský M., Svoboda M., Trnka M., Hayes M.J., Wilhite D.A., Žalud Z., Hlavinka P. (2009) Application of relative drought indices in assessing climate change impacts on drought conditions in Czechia. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 96, 155–171.

Edwards, D.C., McKee, T. B. (1997) Characteristics of 20th century drought in the United States at multiple time scales. Climatology Report Number 97-2, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Gao, B.C. (1996) NDWI – A normalized difference water index for remote sensing of vegetation liquid water from space. Remote Sens. Environ., 58, 257–266.

Ghulam, A., Li, Z.-L., Qin, Q., Tong, Q. (2007a) Exploration of the spectral space based on vegetation index and albedo for surface drought estimation. J. Appl. Remote Sens., 1, 513–529.

Ghulam, A., Qin, Q., Zhan, Z. (2007b) Designing of the perpendicular drought index. Environ. Geol., 52, 1045–1052.

Ghulam, A., Qin, Q., Teyip, T., Li, Z.-L. (2007c) Modified perpendicular drought index (MPDI): A real-time drought monitoring method. J. Photogramm. Remote Sens., 62, 150–164.

Gibbs, W.M., Maher, J.V. (1967) Rainfall deciles as drought indicators. Australia. Bureau of Meteorology, Bulletin no. 48. Melbourne, AUS: Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology.

Gibbs, W. J. (1975) Drought – its definition, delineation and effects. In: Special Environmental. Report No. 5. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, p. 11–39.

Gutman, G. (1990) Towards monitoring droughts from space. J. Climate, 3, 282–295.

Guttman, N.B. (1998). Comparing the Palmer Drought Index and the Standardized Precipitation Index. Journal of the American Water Resources Associatio, 34, 113–121.

Guttman, N. B. (1999) Accepting the Standandardized Precipitation Index: a calculation algorithm. Journal of the American Water Resources Associatio, 35, 311–322.

Hayes M. (2002) Drought indexes. University of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA, 9 p.

Heim, R.R., Jr. (1997) The 1961–1990 global standard climate normals. Preprints, 10th Conf. on Applied Climatology, Reno, NV, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 58–61.

Heim, R.R. (2000) Drought Indices. A review. In: Wilhite, D.A. (ed.) Drought: A Global Assessment, Hazards Disaster Series, Vol. I, Routledge, New York, p. 159–167.

Heim, R.R. (2002) A review of twentieth-century drought indices used in the United States. Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 84, 1149–1165.

Hershfield D.M., Brakensiek D.L., Comer G.H. (1973) Some Measures of Agricultural Drought. In: Schulz E.F., Koelzer V.A., Mahmood K. Floods and Droughts, Proceedings of the Second International Symposium in Hydrology, September 11–13, 1972, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. Water Resources Publication, Fort Collins, Colorado, p. 491–502.

Hisdal, H., Stahl, K., Tallaksen, L.M., Demuth, S. (2001) Have streamflow droughts in Europe become more severe or frequent? Int. J. Climatol., 21, 317–333.

Hosking, J. R. M. (1990) L-moments: Analysis and estimation of distributions using linear combinations of order statistics. Journal of the Royal Statistic Society, B 52(1), 105–124.

Hosking, J. R. M. (1996) Fortran routines for use with the method of L-moments, Version 3. Research Report RC20525, IBM Research Division, Yorktown Heights, N.Y.

IWMI (2008) Terms and Definitions of Droughts. Drought Information Center, International Water Management Institute, Sri Lanka.

Jackson, R.D., Idso, S.B., Beginato, R.J., Pinter, P.J. Jr. (1981) Canopy temperature as a crop water stress indictor. Water Resources Research, 17, 1133–1138.

Karl T. R., Knight R. W. (1985) Atlas of Monthly Palmer Hydrological Drought Indices (1931-1983) for the Contiguous United States. Historical Climatology Series 3–7, National Climatic Data Center, Asheville, NC.

Keyantash, J.A., Dracup, J.A. (2004) An Aggregate Drought Index: Assessing drought severity based on fluctuations in the hydrologic cycle and surface water storage. Water Resources Res., 40, W09304.

Kogan, F.N. (1990) Remote sensing of weather impacts on vegetation in non-homogeneous areas. Int. J. Remote Sens., 11, 1405–1419.

Kogan, F.N. (1995) Application of vegetation index and brightness temperature for drought detection. Adv. Space Research, 11, 91–100.

Kogan, F.N. (1997) Global drought watch from space. Bull. Am. Soc. Met., 78, 621–636.

Kogan, F.N. (2000) Contribution of remote sensing to drought early warning. In: Early Warning Systems for Drought Preparedness and Drought Management. Proc. Expert Group Meetin. Wilhite, D.A., Sivakumar, M.V.K., Wood, D.A. (eds.), 5–7 September 2000, Lisbon (Portugal). World Meteorological Organization, Geneve, p. 86–100.

Kohler, M.A., Linsley, R. (1951). Predicting the runoff from storm rainfall, U.S. Weather Bur. Res. Paper, 34.

Liang S. (2004) Quantitative remote sensing of land surface, 1st edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NY, 534 p. ISBN 0-471-28166-2

Lillesand T.M.; Kiefer R.W., Chipman J.W. (2003) Remote sensing and image interpretation, 5th ed., Wiley. ISBN 0-471-15227-7.

Litschmann T., Klementová E., Rožnovský J. (2001) Palmerův index závažnosti sucha a jeho použití v našich podmínkách. In: IX. posterový deň s medzinárodnou účasťou Hydrológie SAV, Geofyzikálny ústav, Bratislava, Slovakia. ISBN 80-96480-4-6.

Liu, L., Xiang, D., Dong, X., Zhou, Z. (2008) Improvement of the drought monitoring model based on the cloud parameters method and remote sensing data. In: Proc. of the Int. Workshop on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, 23–24 Jan. 2008, Adelaide, Australia, p. 293–296.

Lloyd-Hughes, B., Saunders., M.A. (2002). A drought climatology for Europe, International Journal of Climatology, 22, 1571-1592.

Lu G.Y., Wong D.W. (2008) An adaptive inverse-distance weighting spatial interpolation technique. Computers & Geosciences, 34, 1044–1055.

Mavromatis, T. (2007) Drought index evaluation for assessing future wheat production in Greece. Int. J. Climatol., 27, 911–924.

McKee, T.B., Doesken, N.J., Kleist, J. (1993) The relationship of drought frequency and duration to time scale. In: Preprints Eighth Conference on Applied Climatology, American Meteorological Society, Anaheim (CA), 17-22 January 1993. AMS, pp. 179-184.

Mendicino, G., Senatorea, A.,Versacea, P. (2008) Groundwater Resource Index (GRI) for drought monitoring and forecasting in a mediterranean climate. J. Hydrology, 357(3–4), 282–302.

Moran, M.S., Clarke, T.R., Inoue, Y., Vidal, A. (1994) Estimating crop water deficit using the relation between surface – Air temperature and spectral vegetation index. Remote Sens. Environ., 49, 246–263.

Nalbantis, I., Tsakiris, G. (2009) Assessment of Hydrological Drought Revisited. Water Resour. Manage., 23, 881–897.

Niemeyer, S.(2008) New drought indices. In : López-Francos A. (ed.). Drought management: scientific and technological innovations. Zaragoza : CIHEAM, 2008. p. 267–274. (Options Méditerranéennes: Série A. Séminaires Méditerranéens; n. 80). 1. International Conference Drought Management: Scientific and Technological Innovations, 2008/06/12-14, Zaragoza (Spain).

Ogallo, J. L., Gbeckor-Kove, N. (1989) Drought and Desertification. WMO, Geneva, 73 p.

Palmer W.C. (1965) Meteorological drought, Research paper No. 45. Office of Climatology, U. S. Weather Bureau, U.S. Government printing office, Washington, D.C., USA.

Palmer W.C. (1968) Keeping track of crop moisture conditions, nationwide: The new Crop Moisture Index. Weatherwise, 21, 156–161.

Peters, A.J., Walter-Shea, E.A., Ji, L., Vina, A., Hayes, M.J., Svoboda, M.D. (2002) Drought monitoring with NDVI-based standardized vegetation index.

Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sens., 68, 71–75.

Prudhomme, C., Sauquet, E. (2007) Modelling a regional drought index in France. Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Natural Environment Research Council, Wallingford, UK and Cemagref, France, 54 p.

Rathore M.S. (2004) Adaptive Strategies to droughts in Rajasthan. Institute of Development Studies, Jaipur, India.

Sandholt, I., Rasmussen, K., Andersen, J. (2002) A simple interpretation of the surface temperature/vegetation index space for assessment of surface moisture status. Remote Sens. Environ., 79(2–3), 213–224.

Sen, Z. (1980) Regional drought and flood frequency analysis: Theoretical consideration. J. Hydrology, 46, 265–279.

Shafer, B.A., Dezman, L.E. (1982) Development of a Surface Water Supply Index (SWSI) to assess the severity of drought conditions in snowpack runoff areas. In: Proceedings of the Western Snow Conference, Reno, North Virginia, 19–23 April 1982. Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, USA, p. 164–175.

Shukla, S., Wood, A. W. (2008) Use of a standardized runoff index for characterizing hydrologic drought. Geoph. Res. Letters, Vol. 35, L02405, doi:10.1029/2007GL032487

Sládek, I. (1989) Určování nástupu a ukončení zvolených teplot vzduchu metodou součtových řad a odchylek. Meteorologické zprávy, 42 (2), 52–56. ISSN 0026-1173.

Sládek, I. (2001) Spells of drought: climatological treatment. Acta Universitatis Carolinae – Geographica, 36 (2), 147–153. ISSN 0300-5402.

Stahl, K. (2001) Hydrological drought – a study across Europe. Dissertation Thesis. Albert-Ludwigs Universität Freiburg, Germany, 121 p.

Szinell C., Bussay A., Szentimrey T. (1998) Drought tendencies in Hungary. International Journal of Climatology, 18, 1479-1492.

Taiz L., Zeiger, E. (2002) Plant Physiology, 3rd ed. Sinauer Assocites, Inc., Sunderland, Massachusetts, 690 p. ISBN 0-87893-823-0

Tallaksen, L.M., Madsen, H., Clausen, B. (1997) On the definition and modelling of stream-flow drought duration and deficit volume. Hydrol. Sciences Jour., 42(1), 15–33.

Tallaksen, L., van Lanen, H. (eds.) (2004) Hydrological Drought. Processes and Estimation Methods for Streamflow and Groundwater. Developments in Water Science, 48, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 579 p.

Tate, E.L., Gustard, A. (2000) Drought definition: A hydrological perspective. In: Vogt, J.V. and Somma, F. (eds.): Drought and Drought Mitigation in Europe. Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research, 14, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, NL, p. 23–48.

Trnka, M., Dubrovský, M., Svoboda, M., Semerádová, D., Hayes, M., Žalud, Z., Wilhite, D. (2009) Developing a regional drought climatology for the Czech Republic. Int. J. Climatol., 29, 863–883.

Trnka M., Semerádová D., Eitzinger J., Dubrovský M., Wilhite D., Svoboda M., Hayes M., Žalud Z. (2003) Selected methods of drought evaluation in South Moravia and Northern Austria. In: XI. International poster day (Transport of water, chemicals and energy in soil-crop-atmosphere system), Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Tsakiris, G., Pangalou, D., Vangelis, H. (2007) Regional drought assessment based on the Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI). Water Res. Manage., 21(5), 821–833.

Tsakiris, G. (2010) Meteorological drought assessment. Paper prepared for the needs of the European Research Program MEDROPLAN (Mediterranean Drought Preparedness and Mitigation Planning), Zaragoza, Spain.

Tucker, C.J. (1979) Red and photographic infrared linear combinations for monitoring vegetation. Remote Sens. Environ., 8, 127–150.

van Rooy, M.P. (1965) A rainfall anomaly index independent of time and space. Weather Bureau of South Africa, 14, 43–48.

Vicente-Serrano, S. M., Beguería, S., López-Moreno, J. I. (2010) A Multiscalar Drought Index Sensitive to Global Warming: The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index. Journal of Climate, 23, 1696–1718. DOI: 10.1175/2009JCLI2909.1

Vlnas, R., Novický, O., Kašpárek, L., Hanslík, E., Vizina, A., Fiala, T., Šimek, P., Brzáková, J., Ledvinka, O., Kourková, H. (2010) Časová a plošná variabilita hydrologického sucha v podmínkách klimatické změny na území České republiky. Praha: Výzkumný ústav vodohospodářský T.G.Masaryka, v.v.i., 150 s., ISBN 978-80-87402-11-5

Vogel, R.M., Fennessey, N.M. (1994) Flow Duration Curves I: New Interpretation and Confidence Intervals, J. of Water Res. Planning and Manage., 120(4), 485–504.

Vogt, J.V., Somma, F. (eds.) (2000) Drought and Drought Mitigation in Europe. Advances in Natural and Technological Hazards Research, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 336 p.

Wan, Z., Wang, P., Li, X. (2004) Using MODIS land surface temperature and normalized difference vegetation index products for monitoring drought in the southern Great Plains, USA. Int. J. Remote Sens., 25(1), 61–72.

Wang, L., Qu, J.J. (2007) NMDI: A normalized multi-band drought index for monitoring soil and vegetation moisture with satellite remote sensing. Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L20405.

Weghorst, K. (1996) The reclamation drought index: Guidelines and practical applications. Bureau of Reclamation, Denver (CO), 6 p.

Wells N., Goddard S., Hayes M.J. (2004) A self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index. Journal of Climate, 17, 2335–2351.

Wilhite, D.A., Glantz, M.H. (1985) Understanding the drought phenomenon: The role of definitions. Water International, 10, 111–120.

WMO (1974) International glossary of hydrology. World Meteorological Organization Geneva, Switzerland.

WMO (2012) World Meteorological Organization: Standardized Precipitation Index User Guide (Svoboda, M. Hayes, M., Wood, D.). (WMO-No. 1090), Geneva, Switzerland.

Yevjevich, V. (1967) An objective approach to definition and investigations of continental hydrologic droughts. Hydrology paper No. 23, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA.


Internetové zdroje:

ČHMÚ (2011) Vypočtená suma efektivních srážek [online]. Portál ČHMÚ [cit. 2011-04-25]. Dostupné z: <http://old.chmi.cz/meteo/ok/fire.html>

ČHMÚ (2012a) Aktuální stav počasí [online]. Portál ČHMÚ [cit. 2012-11-20]. Dostupné z: <http://portal.chmi.cz/portal/dtmenu=JSPTabContainer/P10_0_Aktualni_situa ce/P10_1_Pocasi/P10_1_1_Cesko/P10_1_1_13_Monitoring_sucha&last=false>

ČHMÚ (2012b) Stav podzemních vod [online]. Portál ČHMÚ [cit. 2012-11-20]. Dostupné z: <http://portal.chmi.cz/portal/dtmenu=JSPTabContainer/P10_0_Aktualni_situace/P10_2_Hydrologie/ P10_2_3_Stav_podzemnich_vod&last=false>

DMCSEE (2013) Drought bulletins and maps [online], Drought Management Centre for Southeastern Europe [cit. 2012-10-13]. Dostupné z: <http:// http://www.dmcsee.org/en/drought_monitor/>

DMP (2007) Drought Management Plan Report, Technical report 2008–023. November 2007 [online]. In: WATER – Environment – European Commission [cit. 2012-11-22]. Dostupné z: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/quantity/pdf/dmp_report.pdf>

Econnics (2010) British Columbia Drought Response Plan, June 2010 [online]. In: Living Water Smart. B.C.’s Water Plan [cit. 2012-11-22]. Dostupné z: <http://www.env.gov.bc.ca/wsd/public_safety/ drought_info/cabinet/bc_drought_response_plan_june-2010.pdf>

EDO (2011) PRODUCT FACT SHEET: Combined Drought Indicator – EUROPE Version 1 (Dec. 2011) [online] In: Factsheets – European Drought Observatory –

JRC European Commission [online, cit. 2012-11-22]. Dostupné z: <http://edo.jrc.ec.europa.eu/documents/factsheets/factsheet_combinedDrought Indicator.pdf>

EDO (2012a) EDO Home [online] European Drought Observatory. JRC European Commission [cit. 2012-11-22]. Dostupné z: <http://edo.jrc.ec.europa.eu/edov2/php/index.php?id=1000>

EDO (2012b) Maps of Current Droughts in Europe [online]. European Drought Observatory. JRC European Commission [cit. 2012-11-22]. Dostupné z: <http://edo.jrc.ec.europa.eu/edov2/php/index.php ?id=1052>

EDO (2012c) Compare Indicators [online]. European Drought Observatory. JRC European Commission [cit. 2012-11-22]. Dostupné z: <http://edo.jrc.ec.europa.eu/edov2/php/index.php?id=1145>

EDO (2012d) Timeseries [online]. European Drought Observatory. JRC European Commission [cit. 2012-11-22]. Dostupné z: <http://edo.jrc.ec.europa.eu/edov2/php/index.phplat=50&lon=15&yearfrom=2012&yearto=2012&title= TITLE&sumrain=on&spi3=on&fapar=on&fapar_anom=on&soilmoist=on&soilmoist_anom=on&action= view&id=1141&params=fapar%2Cfapar_anom%2Csoilmoist%2Csoilmoist_anom%2Cspi3%2Csumrain &settlementletter=&settlement=&subtitle=&sumrain_color=187%2C187%2C187&spi3_color=255% 2C204%2C0&fapar_color=50%2C203%2C50&fapar_anom_color=76%2C127%2C76&soilmoist_color =153%2C102%2C51& soilmoist_anom_color=255%2C0%2C0&cdi_color= 255%2C153%2C51>

EDO (2013) Factsheets of EDO Indicators [online]. European Drought Observatory. JRC European Commission [cit. 2013-11-12]. Dostupné z: <http://edo.jrc.ec.europa.eu/edov2/php/index.php?id=1101>

Hosking, J. R. M. (2014). L-moments [online]. R package, version 2.2., [cit. 2014-01-15]. Dostupné z: <http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=lmom>

HPPS (2012) Hlásná a předpovědní povodňová služba [online]. ČHMÚ [cit. 2012-11-20]. Dostupné z: <http://hydro.chmi.cz/hpps/>

LWSWP (2012) Living Water Smart [online]. B.C.’s Water Plan [cit. 2012-11-22]. Dostupné z: <http://www.livingwatersmart.ca/drought>

MDI (2012) Map of Drought Impacts [online]. Drought Impact Reporter, NDMC [cit. 2012-11-22]. Dostupné z: <http://droughtreporter.unl.edu/>

NADM (2012) North American Drought Monitor Maps [online]. Temperature, Precipitation, and Drought, NOAA [cit. 2012-11-22]. Dostupné z:<http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/temp-and-precip/drought/nadm/nadm-maps.php>

NWIB (2012) Niedrigwasser-Informationsdienst Bayern [online], Bayerisches Landesamt für Umwelt [cit. 2012-11-22]. Dostupné z: <http://www.nid.bayern.de/>

NCAR-UCAR (2012) Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) [online]. Climate Data Guide. National Centre for Atmospheric Research, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research [cit. 2013-01-25]. Dostupné z: <https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu/climate-data/standardized-precipitation-index-spi>

NDMC (2008) Climate Division Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), National Drought Mitigation Centre [online, cit. 2011-01-04]. Dostupné z: <http://drought.unl.edu/MonitoringTools/ClimateDivisionSPI.aspx>

R Core Team (2013). R: A language and environment for statistical computing [online]. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. [cit. 2014-01-15] Dostupné z: <http://www.R-project.org/>

STAR (2012) STAR [online]. Global Vegetation Health Products: Archived Images Drought [cit. 2012-11-22]. Dostupné z: <http://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/smcd/emb/ vci/VH/vh_gmap4km.php>

USDM (2012a) United States Drought Monitor [online]. Home. USDM [cit. 2012-11-22]. Dostupné z: <http://www.droughtmonitor.unl.edu/>

USDM (2012b) United States Drought Monitor [online]. Classification Scheme, USDM [cit. 2012-11-22]. Dostupné z: <http://droughtmonitor.unl.edu/classify.htm>

USDM (2012c) United States Drought Monitor [online]. Current situation, USDM [cit. 2012-11-22]. Dostupné z: <http://www.droughtmonitor.unl.edu/current.html>

USDO (2012) Climate Prediction Center [online]. Expert Assessments: United States Seasonal Drought Outlook Summary, USDO [cit. 2012-11-22]. Dostupné z: <http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/ expert_assessment/sdo_summary.html>

USGS (2012) WaterWatch [online]. Streamflow conditions, USGS [cit. 2012-11-22]. Dostupné z: <http://waterwatch.usgs.gov/index.php>